## Monday, December 17, 2007

### (Important) Final Cumulatives (Everything included--sans letter grades)

I am done grading the final exam, and also assigning participation grades. Enclosed please find the final cumulatives for

both the sections.

Participation grade is based on 1. three letter grades for attendance, attentiveness and blog participation and

2. conversion of those three to a single number between 0 and 10.

Note that I included two "grand totals"--one which includes everything except participation

and the other which also includes participation grade and scales everything down by a factor of 11/10

(since participation grade is more subjective than the other grades, I wanted to see how many people's

relative standings got significantly affected by the participation grade).

I will now ponder over these numbers and await super-natural enlightenment to dawn on me between now and

11:59pm when the grades are due.

I will tell you this much. The students at the top of the 471 and 598 lists will both get A+ grades.

***************Those two are also are invited to *suggest* grade cutoffs for both sections (as well as what should be the lowest grade awarded in

either of the sections). [I

Rao

## Wednesday, December 12, 2007

### Cumulatives (including everything except the final exam and class participation)--Please let us know if you see any errors

Enclosed please find the cumulatives of as of now (including everything except the final exam and class participation). The last homework and project can be picked up from TA's desk.

Please check and let us know if you see any discrepancies in the recorded marks (note that in a couple of cases, the correct late penalty has not been factored-in yet--those are shown in red).

The current total includes 23 points for all homeworks together and 37 points for all projects together 20 points for the mid-term.

Note that the extra credit points in all categories are shown but are not factored into the totals as yet (as per my promise we do that only after the letter grade thresholds are determined).

Rao

---------------

## Tuesday, December 11, 2007

### Feh Java (just when you thought the blog is dead and gone...)

at any rate, it is moderately funny (I think Structure and Interpretation of Programs

should be the only text to teach real programming with..)

http://www.joelonsoftware.com/articles/ThePerilsofJavaSchools.html

Rao

## Friday, December 7, 2007

### [cse 471] Grading scheme for project-4 (prolog theorem prover)

Grading scheme for project-4 is as follows:

Total: 100 + 40 (extra credit)

Coding + Testing + Documentation:

Task1: 5

Task2: 20

Task3: 25

code quality: 5

Domains: 15 pts (5+10)

Edited Trace - with analysis - and comments: 15 pts

Correct outputs for test cases: 10 pts

Other Analysis (observations): 5 pts

Extra Credit: 10 points for each of the 4 tasks

Let me know if you have any questions.

(Since few of you used the late extension, I will send the statistics once I am done with grading them.)

Good luck for the final take home exam.

Thanks,

Aravind

### [cse 471] Grading scheme of homework-4 and statistics

Here is the marking scheme for homework-4.

Total: 70 points

1. 29 (3+4+5+4+3+3+7)

2. 8

3. 10 (4+2+4)

4. 7 (4+3)

5. 4

6. 12 (2+1+2+5+2)

And the grade distribution is as follows:

UG: 41.33(Avg) 62(H) 40 (L)

Grad: 55.28(Avg) 70(H) 46(L)

Let me know if you have any questions.

Thanks,

Aravind

## Thursday, December 6, 2007

### Final exam released

The final exam is available at http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cse471/f07-final-qq.pdf

Please print it single-sided and do all your work on the exam.

It is due back by Monday 5pm in hardcopy

Please monitor your email for any errata corrections.

Good luck

Rao

----------

### (important) Information about the final..

Here is information about the final. It will be released this afternoon (after 12noon). It mostly focuses on the material covered after the

midterm.The final will be due back by Monday 5pm in hard copy (there are exception clauses for people who may have too many other exams between now

and Monday--see the instructions on whether you qualify to *request* for extension).

I am in my office until noon today and you can come by to ask me any questions on the material.

Once the final is released, I will only answer clarification questions on the exam (and not general questions on topics covered--this is so that there is less

temptation to just try to understand the material needed to do fine on the exam..)

rao

## Wednesday, December 5, 2007

### I am going to be available 4:30--6:30 as planned (for additional office hours)

rao

### Today;s office hours--11:30--12:30

I also intend to be around from 4:30--6:30 today. However, there is a small variable that might change my plans.

(I will let you know if I am unable to be around; you can also call 965-0113)

rao

## Tuesday, December 4, 2007

## Monday, December 3, 2007

### A note on raw cumulatives etc.

The answer is *yes*. We will send you one this week--that will take all graded work--including participation grade--

into account. We will again send the final totals next week after final has been graded. You will have plenty of time to

point out any inadvertent errors in the gradebook.

rao

### Re: [Blog for Fall 2007 ASU CSE 471/598 Introduction to AI] Links from the last c...

http://youtube.com/watch?v=k9_iQim8Mtw

May you be able to "outsource" everything (except, of course, the final for this class!)

Rao

**Subbarao Kambhampati**<subbarao2z2@gmail.com> wrote:

0. The ending utube video of Simpsons that didn't play in the class (it iseems to play fine on youtube)

http://youtube.com/watch?v=uI1LtTtRV7s

(for those who know hindi-- no, I am not attempting subliminal messages ;-)

1. Here is the link I promised on whether or not Deepblue has "intelligence"

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/f06-cse471-mailarchive/msg00043.html

2. Coverage of Russell's own course on intro to AI for undergrads some place out further west:

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~russell/classes/cs188/f05/

(the syllabus followed is at http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~russell/classes/cs188/f05/syllabus.html )

My philosophy is that *what* is taught in a course shouldn't depend on *where* it is taught. The demands and

coverage of the course should not be diluted based on anyone's reduced expectations of a student population

(since this is a vicious slippery slope and is ultimately detrimental to the students themselves).

Your grade may well depend on who else took the course with you, but the material and demands should not.

3. On my aborted experiment with providing Java code:

Here, FYI, is the Java version of the code for the first project we provided in 2003.

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/prj1-partial-code.java

No one who actually completed the project wound up using it. So, we discontinued the practice after one other project.

regards

Rao

--

Posted By Subbarao Kambhampati to Blog for Fall 2007 ASU CSE 471/598 Introduction to AI at 12/03/2007 11:15:00 PM

### Links from the last class

http://youtube.com/watch?v=uI1LtTtRV7s

(for those who know hindi-- no, I am not attempting subliminal messages ;-)

1. Here is the link I promised on whether or not Deepblue has "intelligence"

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/f06-cse471-mailarchive/msg00043.html

2. Coverage of Russell's own course on intro to AI for undergrads some place out further west:

http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~russell/classes/cs188/f05/

(the syllabus followed is at http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~russell/classes/cs188/f05/syllabus.html )

My philosophy is that *what* is taught in a course shouldn't depend on *where* it is taught. The demands and

coverage of the course should not be diluted based on anyone's reduced expectations of a student population

(since this is a vicious slippery slope and is ultimately detrimental to the students themselves).

Your grade may well depend on who else took the course with you, but the material and demands should not.

3. On my aborted experiment with providing Java code:

Here, FYI, is the Java version of the code for the first project we provided in 2003.

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/prj1-partial-code.java

No one who actually completed the project wound up using it. So, we discontinued the practice after one other project.

regards

Rao

### Last thinking cap: Opportunity to do your interactive review on the blog

CSE471 Interactive Review

Transcription

Randy Compton

- Bayes Nets

- The tool

- Connections between search and theorem proving interesting

Nishant Singh

- MDPs should be covered more

- They are practical

- WHY DO WE HAVE TO USE LISP?

- Rao: People who are bad at programming are bad at every *kind* of programming

- Lisp does not push users into one paradigm; logic, functional etc. everything are used

Ryan Braley

- Too much focus on optimality

Tuan Nguyen

- Factored representation vs. Black box

- Internal state representation makes a difference!

- Rao: we mostly went from black boxes to factored representations; except for when we considered MDPs, because MDPs consider states as black boxes.

Ravi Gummadi

- Heuristics

- Discussion was very limited

- Rao: Beyond a certain level, discussion on heuristics is problem-dependent

Jeff Plummer

- Class should be divided into 2 sections

- Requires a lot of learning

- Practical applications;

- for e.g, how do MDPs fit into real-world

- Rao: We fall in the middle of the distribution of courses on AI; we do about 2/3rds of Russell's course at UCB

Matt Bisgard

- Differences in perception between what human mind can do vs. what computers can

- Rao: self-serving descriptions of whatever we do

- Rao: Go is hard for machines vs. chess being easy; but its not clear that Go is somehow more human than chess

- Rao: Drew McDermott's article on Deep Blue; Marvin Minsky's quote "With understanding comes a sense of loss"

- Rao: This entire course was ambivalent about humans, but we need to come back to humans once

Kyle Luce

- Randomization leading to better results

- Random restart hill climbing search

- Rao: works because there are many solutions

Gavin Lewis

- Bayes' Theorem

- Writing real-life situations is much harder than it seems

- Links between cognitive psychology and AI

- Lot less overlap between what AI seems to be (after this class) and the perception of AI

- Rao: Many of the concepts covered present in mathematics way before AI

Anupam Khulbe

- Connections between research techniques and planning

- More discussion on planning would have been nice

Richard Sealy

- Algorithmic optimality: For search through states etc

- Rao: Problem is most of the algorithms used are NP-Complete

- Rao: AI doesn't pay as much attention to system-building and optimization

Ina Sen

- New-found respect for 2^n

Sushma Dittakavi

- Classifiers, Learning

Juraj

- Enjoyed homeworks

- Did NOT enjoy projects that required Lisp

- ON LISP

---------------------------

## Wednesday, November 28, 2007

### An optional question on learning has been added to homework 5

### *Important* Headsup: Interactive review in the next class

You should come to the class prepared with a sheet that answers these questions--that you will turn in at the end of the class (in addition to sharing them verbally in the class).

### heads up: you will be asked to fill an participation evaluation sheet next class

## Tuesday, November 27, 2007

### For the Undergraduate students: Fulton Undergradute Research Initiative deadline...

-------

Amy Sever says:

Applications for Spring 2008 FURI program due on November 30

^{th}(this Friday) – see here for more info: http://www. fulton.asu.edu/fulton/departments/furi/. Please encourage your undergraduate students to participate.

----------

## Monday, November 26, 2007

### [Thinking Cap] on learning.. (May be the last or penultimate chance to don that cap) [4th qn added]

### Homework 5 first four problems due on Dec 3rd in class

### Bias, generalization and stereotypes: A half-baked lesson in Ethics

[ACM suggests that some percentage of Undergraduate CS courses should be spent on discussing

ethics. May be this will fill that role... At any rate, I have been sending it since Fall 2003, and I see no reason

Inductive generalizations are what allow the

organisms with their limited minds to cope with the staggering complexity

make rapid "fight or flight" decisions, and they had to do biased

learning to get anywhere close to survival. So, we can't really

seriously ask people not to generalize or not to have biases!

The problem of course is where does this leave us vis-a-vis

stereotypes--the "all Antarciticans are untrustworthy", "all

Krakatoans are smelly" variety. Afterall, they too are instances of

our mind's highly useful ability to induce patterns from limited

samples.

So, what, if any, is the best computational argument against stereotyping? One

normal argument is that the stereotype may actually be wrong--in

otherwords, they are actually wrong (non-PAC) generalizations, either

because they are based on selective (non-representative) samples, or

because the learner intentionally chose to ignore training samples

disagreeing with its hypothesis. True, some

stereotypes--e.g. "women

can't do math", "men can't cook" variety--are of this form.

However, this argument alone will not suffice, as it leaves open the

possibility that it is okay to stereotype if the stereotype is

correct. (By correct, we must, of course, mean "probably approximately

correct," since there are few instances where you get metaphysical

certainty of generalization.)

What exactly could be wrong in distrusting a specific Antarcitican because

you have come across a large sample of untrustworthy Antarciticans?

I think one way to see it is perhaps in terms of "cost-based

learning". In these types of scenarios, you, the learning agent, have

a high cost on false negatives--if you missed identifying an

untrustworthy person, or a person who is likely to mug you on a dimly

lit street, or a person who is very likely to be a "bad" employee in

the fact that the person who is classifed falsely positive by your

(negative) stereotype suffers a very large cost. Since the false

your false positives, and we have the classic case of individual good

clashing with societal good.

This then is the reason civil societies must go the extra mile to

discourage acting on negative stereotypes, so we do not round up all

antarciticans and put them in bootcamps, or stop all Krakatoans at

airport securities and douse them with Chanel 5. And societies, the

good ones, by and large do, or at least try to do. The golden rule,

the "let a thousand guilty go free than imprison one innocent", and

the general societal strictures about negative streotypes--are all

measures towards this.

You need good societal laws (economists call these "Mechanism Design")

So, you are forced to learn to sometimes avoid acting on the highly

efficient, probably PAC, generalizations that your highly evolved

brain makes. I think.

Yours illuminatingly... ;-)

Rao

Epilogue/can skip:

It was a spring night in College Park, Maryland sometime in

1988. Terrapins were doing fine. The Len Bias incident was slowly

getting forgotten. It was life as usual at UMD. About the only big

(if a week-old) news was that of a non-caucasian guy assaulting a

couple of women students in parking lots. I was a graduate student,

and on this particular night I did my obligatory late-evening visit to

my lab to feign some quality work. My lab is towards the edge of the campus;

just a couple more buildings down the Paint Branch Drive, and you get

to the poorly lit open-air parking lots.

On that night I parked my car, walked down the couple of blocks to my

lab, only to remember that I left a book in the car. So, I turned, and

started walking back to the parking lot. As I was walking, I noticed

that this woman walking in front turned a couple of times to look back at me. I remembered

that I had passed her by in the opposite direction. Presently I

noticed her turning into the cryogenics building, presumably her

lab. As I passed by the cryo lab, however, I saw the woman standing

behind the glass doors of the lab and looking at me.

Somewhere after I took a few more steps it hit me with lightning

force--I was a false positive! The woman was ducking into

the lab to avoid the possibility that I might be the non-caucasian

male reportedly assaulting campus women. I knew, at a rational level,

that what she was exhibiting is a reasonably rational survival

instinct. But it did precious little to assuage the shock and

diminution I felt (as evidenced by the fact that I still remember the

incident freshly, after these many years.).

yourself sometime in your life...

--------------

....not to make up your minds, but to open them.

To make the agony of decision-making so intense that

you can escape only by thinking.

-Tag line from Columbia School of Journalism Seminars

"Induction extends your expectation, not your experience"

### Project 4 late submission requests..

## Sunday, November 25, 2007

### [cse 471] Instructions for project-4 submission

## Wednesday, November 21, 2007

### Information regarding CSE574 being offered next semester..

the course hasn't been offered since before Bush's re-election.

The course home page from the last offering is at http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cse574

and will give a reasonable idea of what we might do.

If you liked the material on planning, CSP and markov decision processes in CSE 471

then you will likely like 574.

It is going to be run as a "Real" (TM) graduate course (read "real easy") but I am happy to have qualified undergraduate students register for the class (you will need to fill a special form from the department and have it signed by me).

You may have to register real quick though; now that I managed to get the word out through the State Press that I teach real easy courses, I expect this course to fill up real fast with real honors students (http://www.statepress.com/issues/2007/11/21/opinions )

Happy thanksgiving!

Rao

ps: The course might experiment with a novel grading scheme where grades depend directly on how many papers the student can publish in top venues (with significant bonuses involved in listing the instructor as a co-author ;-).

## Monday, November 19, 2007

### [Thinking Cap] MDPs etc...

0. Consider the MDP applet demo we saw in the class today. The default discount factor was set to 0.9, and the reward states were made "absorbing". What do you think will happen if you make the discount factor to be 1. Confirm your intuition with the applet. Now, do this part again but without any absorbing states. Again, try to guess what will happen, and confirm your intuition.

2.2. Planning problem where (some of) the variables are real valued. Actions have effects that can increment and decrement the variables by arbitrary amounts. What do you think will be the complexity of planning in this case? (recall that discrete variable planning is PSPACE-complete, i.e., it is among the hardest problems that can be solved with polynomial space).

3. The MDPs we considered until now are called "Fully observable"--in that during execution, the agent can tell which state it is in (thus the policy needs to only map states to actions). What happens if the domain is only "partially observable".

Note that this means that the agent may not know which unique state it is in, but knows the "probability distribution" over the possible states it could be in. When the agent does an action, it effect of the action is to modify the distribution into a new distribution over states (with some states being more likely and others less.

Notice that the "distribution" is fully observable although the underlying states aren't.

So, one idea will be to consider the distributions as the states. What happens to the complexity of MDPs? How is this connected to MDPs over "continuous" state spaces?

[Notice that the above still works for the special case fully observable domain. The initial distribution will be a delta function--with probablity being 1.0 for a single state, and 0.0 for all others. Doing an action converts into another delta function--with the 1.0 for a different state].

That is all for now...

Rao

### [cse471] Proj-3 (Bayes Nets) grading scheme and distribution

**Grade Distribution:**

36.6(Avg) | 42(H) | 26(L) |

36.3(Avg) | 42(H) | 21(L) |

## Sunday, November 18, 2007

### (Thinking cap) Complexity of planning

What is the complexity of action planning? Is it NP-complete? More?

## Thursday, November 15, 2007

### Thinking Cap questions (comment on the blog)

Here are some thinking cap questions.

(1) Underlying much of the discussion on MDP is a fundamental principle about decision making under uncertainty--that a rational decision maker does the action that maximises the *expected* utility. For example, if you have two actions, A1, which gets you to S1 with 0.9 prob, and S2 with 0.1 prob, and A2 which gets you to S2 with 0.2 prob and S3 with 0.8 prob, and the utilities of the states are S1=10 S2=100 S3=-20.

Then the expected utility of doing action A1 is .9*10+0.1*100=19; and that of doing A2 is 0.2*100+.8*-20= 20-16=4. So, a rational agent must pick A1 over A2.

Consider a typical lottery. You buy a ticket for 1$, and you get a 1 in ten million chance of winning 1million. You have two possible actions: Buy the ticket or Not buy the ticket. Expected return of buying the ticket seems to be a loss of 90 cents while expected return of not buying the ticket is 0.

Despite this, we know that lotteries are flourishing everywhere. Does the success of lotteries show that the underlying assumption of decision theory is irrevocably flawed in accounting for what humans do? Or is there a decision-theoretic explanation for why some humans seem to go for lotteries?

(2) In today's class we agreed that the "optimal policy" is simply a mapping from states to actions. However, if two people, one 20 years old and another 60 years old, but otherwise completely identical in their financial situation, go to a financial advisor, the advisor will give differing advice to the 20yr and the 60yr one (typically, for the 20 year old, it will be to invest all in stocks and for the 60 yr one, it will be to invest in bonds or even put it under the pillow).

To the extent MDPs can be thought of as a model of our everyday decision making, how can you explain this difference between policies for two agents that seem to be identical in all respects?

(3) When we come into this world, we probably don't have a very good model of the world (a kid, for example, doesn't quite know what the outcomes of many different actions are. So, the kid will eagerly try putting their hand on the red glowing thing--even if the glowing thing in question happens to be the cooking range. So, presumably we learn the model. How about the "reward" model? Is the reward model also completely learned from scratch?

Comments, on the blog, welcome.

cheers

Rao

## Wednesday, November 14, 2007

### Project-2 grading scheme and statistics

## Monday, November 12, 2007

### Project 4 due date set 11/26 (and opportunity to finish earlier incomplete projects)

I have set the project 4 due date to 11/26. Given that we have just one week of classes left after that,

we will not have time for project 5 (I know--it is very disappointing).

I will likely include some mini-project like things into the last homework.

Those of you who have failed complete any of the earlier projects are highly encouraged to use the time to complete them

and turn them in by 3rd December (end of the semester).

Rao

### Reading for the next class..

Sequential Decision Making & Markov Decision Processes (17.1--17.3)

followed by

Adversarial Search (6.1--6.4)

You will be best served if you have read the material before showing up.

rao

## Saturday, November 10, 2007

### Video recording of the makeup class is on google videos

(and were nice enough to respond to my mail and let me know that they can't make it)

we recorded yesterday's class and uploaded it onto Google Videos. Here is the link

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-912129121787012966

With the video and a copy of the ppt slides, you get the full picture of the class

cheers

Rao

## Friday, November 9, 2007

### Makeup class lecture and audio up on web + Homework 5 socket opened with a planning question

The slides and audio from today's class are online. I also opened Homework 5 socket and put in a multi-part question on planning

domains and heuristics.

We also made a video recording of the class but it is 728mb. I am trying to post it on google video. If I succeed, I will send you a link.

Rao

## Wednesday, November 7, 2007

### Please reply to this message if you don't expect to be able to attend Friday's makeup class

For planning purposes, I am trying to figure out who will *not* be able to attend Friday's makeup class (10:40--11:55 in the same room).

If you can't attend, please let me know by replying to this message.

regards

Rao

## Tuesday, November 6, 2007

### A talk on "future of AI" (resending with a more informative subject)

---------- Forwarded message ----------

From:

**Subbarao Kambhampati**<rao@asu.edu>

Date: Nov 6, 2007 6:17 AM

Subject: Fwd: Link to the slides and audio

To: Rao Kambhampati <rao@asu.edu>

Folks:

Last Friday, I got a chance to pontificate on the "Future of AI" at the eponymous Univesity of Washington seminar

(http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/courses/590a/07au/ )

The title of my talk was "Human-Aware AI (Darned Humans--Can't live with them, Can't live Without them)"

In case you are interested, the slides and audio for the talk are available at the following links:

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/uw-haai-talk.ppt

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/rao-uw-talk.WAV

cheers

Rao

### Fwd: Link to the slides and audio

Last Friday, I got a chance to pontificate on the "Future of AI" at the eponymous Univesity of Washington seminar

(http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/courses/590a/07au/ )

The title of my talk was "Human-Aware AI (Darned Humans--Can't live with them, Can't live Without them)"

In case you are interested, the slides and audio for the talk are available at the following links:

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/uw-haai-talk.ppt

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/rao-uw-talk.WAV

cheers

Rao

## Sunday, November 4, 2007

### Re: Regarding Project 3

**Nishant Singh**<Nishant.Singh@asu.edu> wrote:

HiCan u plz post the guidelines of submission of project 3like do we have to submit the .bn of all the parts on my ASU or print out of it to prof Rao

thankswith regards

Nishant Singh

## Thursday, November 1, 2007

### State-of-the-art in solving crosswords using AI techniques..

using AI techniques to solve cross word puzzles. If you are, check out the following page:

http://www.oneacross.com/proverb/

The 6+ page conference paper

http://www.oneacross.com/proverb/papers/keim99proverb.pdf

is a great read and shows how they set it up as a probabilistic constraint satisfaction problem (using web to

get the words ;-)

Rao

### Midterm solutions are available..

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cse471/f07-midterm-sols-kq.pdf

FYI

Rao

## Wednesday, October 31, 2007

### Project 4 available for *preview*

Project 4--which will involve doing backward chaining generalized modus ponens (as discussed in the class with the apartment pet example today)--is available in the projects page for preview. The due date is not yet decided.

Rao

### sqrt(2)^sqrt(2) is actually irrational (so you now know two irrationals p & q so p^q is rational)

no excuse--2^2^n (as in the number of boolean functions over n variables, or the size of the search space of when you have n state variables and you can't observe

the value of any of the) is up there in the haloween nightmares of computer scientists.

Part 1:

Coming back to the original question, the existential proof that I showed didn't quite tell you any specific irrational numbers p and q for which p^q is rational (we had two pairs of

possibilities for p and q).

In case you are dying to know, sqrt(2)^sqrt(2) is actually

irrational (actually transcendental (*)). So a constructive proof for

our theorem is with p=sqrt(2)^sqrt(2) and q=sqrt(2)

see http://www.math.hmc.edu/funfacts/ffiles/10004.3-5.shtml

(which also points out a more general and easy to understand constructive proof. Consider

e^{log_e q} for any transcendental number e and rational number q--which will be q. All you need to show is log_e(q) is irrational and you can show this easily (If log_e(q) = m/n with integers m and n without common factors, then

q = e^{m/n}. This would mean that e is the root of an algebraic equation x^m - q^n = 0. But the definition of trancendental number is that it cannot be the root of any algebraic equation!).

(*) By the way, transcendental => irrational but not vice versa. In particular, transcendentals are those irrational numbers that cannot be roots of any algebraic equation. Two famous examples of course are e and pi. Notice that proving that a number e *is* transcendental involves showing that e^r for any rational number r cannot be rational (since if it is, then e will be the root of an algebraic equation). Thus, proving transcendentality is not all that easy.

Part 2:

Check out

http://digitalphysics.org/Publications/Cal79/html/cmath.htm

`for a nice discussion on the Constructive vs. Classical mathematics--and how during Hilbert's time there was a pretty big controversy in mathematics--with mathematicians such as Brouer insisted that all math that depended on existential proofs be thrown out.Papa Hilbert had to come to rescue--pretty heady stuff.`

`You might also look at`

`http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mathematics-constructive/`

`which also talks about the "slick" irrational power irrational can be rational proof...`

### Grade anxiety amelioration program..

letter grades at the end of the semester.

As I mentioned there is no automatic translation program. It requires all the deliberative powers of a bleary-eyed full professor to convert them into letter grades.

If it helps, the following are the cumulative scores and lower-bound grade cutoffs that were used once before ( Fall 2003)

This is strictly to give you a non-binding example. Every class is different and

the actual grades this time will again be determined adaptively. (In particular, the last times lowerbounds may or may not be admissible heuristics on this times grades...)

Feel free to ask me questions/express concerns either anonymously or in person. Like I said, at this point, after these many classes, tests, projects, exams and endurance of those never-ending lectures, if you are still enjoying the class, it will be a shame to lose you purely because of grade anxiety...

[I should be in my office much of the time tomorrow, but will be out of office and on travel on Friday. I will be checking my mail though.]

regards

Rao

============================================

From: Subbarao Kambhampati <rao@asu.edu>

To: cse471-f03@parichaalak.eas.asu.edu

Date: Fri, 19 Dec 2003 08:52:33 -0700

Subject: Admissible heuristic for letter grades...

People started asking me for letter grades.

Your final letter grades will be available sometime next week online.

However, I think it is reasonable to give you a lowerbound on your grade.

Here then is an admissible--and reasonably informed (since I am making it

;-) heuristic on estimating your grade:

For Graduate students:

If your cumulative is >80% your lower bound grade will be an A

Above 70, lowerbound grade is B.

For UG students:

If your cumulative is >75% your lower bound grade will be an A

if your cumulative is > 65, your lowerbound grade will be B

if your cumulative is >50, your lowerbound grade will be C

if your cumulative is >35, your lowerbound grade will be D

else E.

***In both cases, if your cumulative+extra credit pushes you over a threshold, then

you get that higher grade.

Rao

ps: I am willing to take comments from people about grade thresholds that

are _below_ the category they

are in (i.e., A folks can tell me whether the A,B,C thresholds should be

changed. B folks can tell me if B and C thresholds can be changed

and so on). You can comment on whether the current thresholds are too

generous or too tight etc.

======================================

### Current Cumulatives (as of Haloween day)

To give you an idea of your standing in the class, here are the current cumulatives

(471 and 598 students are put in two different groups).

Note that to get you a scaled score, I gave 1% point to Proj 0, 10% to Proj 1, 5,5 and 3 points

to the three homeworks and 20pts to Midterm. The specific points may change a bit, but this should

give you a good idea.

Note that extra credit points are not converted now (these are "unrealized gains" that will be realized only after

final grades are set up).

In terms of grades, note that (1) I have no fixed thresholds for grades (2) I plan to give all grades--

A+/A/A-/B+/B/B- etc--the works..

Let me know if you have specific questions.

Rao

## Tuesday, October 30, 2007

### Midterm grades statistics..

Here are the stats on the midterm:

471: Max: 64; Min: 12 Avg:42 St.dev: 15

(Marks in rank order:

64; 57; 51.5; 41.5; 41; 39; 37; 36; 12

598: Max: 73.5 Min: 9 Avg: 52 St.dev: 16

(Marks in rank order:

73.5; 70; 66.5; 64.5; 64; 61.5; 61; 59; 58.5; 58.5; 57; 49; 49; 48;

48; 39; 38.5; 36; 26.5; 9

I will return the graded exams in class tomorrow.

Check out http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cse471/exam-philosophy.jpg for my half-baked philosophy on exams and grades might mean.

If you need to vent, feel free to use the anonymous channel http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cgi-bin/mail?rao

If, after seeing your exam tomorrow, you are worried about how you are doing, come and talk to me in the office hours (like I said, it would

be wise to talk to me before taking any drop decisions).

Finally, if either of the students who ranked at the top of the 471 or 598 list can guess who they are and send me an email I will buy them a geek present

(read "a book") for doing well *and* being brash. (I promise not to subtract any marks from your total even if you guess wrong ;-).

cheers

Rao

## Monday, October 29, 2007

### Required reading for Wednesday

Please read the following parts from the text for Wednesday's class. We will likely do just one class on FOPC inference and so it will help if you have read this stuff before.

9.1. Propositional vs. First-Order Inference ... 272

Inference rules for quantifiers ... 273

Reduction to propositional inference ... 274

9.2. Unification and Lifting ... 275

A first-order inference rule ... 275

Unification ... 276

9.4. Backward Chaining ... 287

A backward chaining algorithm ... 287

9.5. Resolution ... 295

Conjunctive normal form for first-order logic ... 295

The resolution inference rule ... 297

Example proofs ... 297

Resolution strategies ... 304

Unit preference ... 305

Set of support ... 305

Input resolution ... 305

Subsumption ... 306

## Friday, October 26, 2007

### Project 2 submission date/late submission etc..

We are getting tons of mails on project 2. So we thought we will send

a single mail to the entire class

1. Project 2 will be accepted without penalty until close of business

today (the department office closes 5pm).

2. If you have not used your extension, you can exercise it and submit

the project by Monday *in class* (just write that you are using your

extension).

3. If you have already used your extension and still can't complete it

by today, try to submit it by Monday morning in class. There *will be*

a late penalty on this submission.

Note that I am not trying to be mean--but rather fair to those

(minority of) people who did change their schedule around to complete

the project already.

Happy sudoku

Rao

[Oct 26, 2007]

## Tuesday, October 23, 2007

### Entailment status and learning

Consider an agent which has a current knowledge base KB, and you are trying to "tell" it another fact f

We can distinguish between three types of entailment status between KB and f:

1. KB |= f [the agent is being told what it already implicitly knows]

2. KB |= ~f [the agent is being told the opposite of what it already implicitly knows]

3. Neither 1 nor 2. [The agent is being told something "completely new" ]

Let us ask the question---in which of these cases can you say that the agent "learned" something?

In case 3 ( i.e., the KB neither entails f nor entails ~f), it is easy to see that f is truly new knowledge being added to the agent.

So, learning clearly occurs here. This is called "knowledge level learning".

In case 2, KB already entails ~f. Now the agent is being told f is true. If it goes ahead and adds f, then it will have an inconsistent

KB. To resolve the inconsistency, either the agent should refuse to believe f, or "lobotomize" itself so that it can no longer prove ~f.

To do the latter, the agent needs to consider all ways of proving ~f and for each of those proofs, remove at least one axiom taking part in the

proof (so that that proof doesn't go through). Thus, in this case, the agent "learns" what part of its existing knowledge base is faulty and should

be thrown out-- (this is called "theory revision"). It is obvious that we do it ourselves..

In case 1, f is already entailed by the KB, so in a sense there is no learning taking place (the agent is being told what it already knows). However,

if checking the entaiment of f takes a long time, then remembeing the proved theorem can improve the agent's performance (in as much as it can

stop it from having to do this computation again). This is a form of "speedup learning" (and the "factor tables" that are computed and stored by the variable

elimination algorithm we just talked in the class is a form of speedup learning).

Rao

ps: If you are wondering "By what stretch of imagination can this stuff be construed as 'review', I offer you the following quote from Northern Exposure

(for those of you old enough to have seen the show ;-)

"My student came to me with a desire to know the time, and

I taught her how to make a watch"

-Chris in the morning..

## Monday, October 22, 2007

### (optional) Review session for midterm-- starts 4pm in BY 576 on Tuesday

rao

## Sunday, October 21, 2007

### Reminder: *Important*--required reading for Monday's class

---------- Forwarded message ----------

From:

**Subbarao Kambhampati**<subbarao2z2@gmail.com>

Date: Oct 17, 2007 4:42 PM

Subject: [Blog for Fall 2007 ASU CSE 471/598 Introduction to AI] *Important*--required...

To: subbarao2z2@gmail.com

Make sure to read pages 504 to 515-- especially pages 507-509 before coming to the class on Monday

(when we will discuss inference in bayes networks)

rao

--

Posted By Subbarao Kambhampati to Blog for Fall 2007 ASU CSE 471/598 Introduction to AI at 10/17/2007 04:42:00 PM

### Re: Project 3 assigned and Homework 3 socket opened.. (I meant homework 4)

rao

**Subbarao Kambhampati**<rao@asu.edu> wrote:

Folks

Project 3 --which is really a mini-project--(Bayes networks to save christmas in springfield) is assigned. It doesn't require any coding (!).

Homework 3 socket is opened and I added questions on Bayes Networks. It is also likely to be due around the same time as project 3.

Rao (trying out for the "most popular professor" award ;-)

### Project 3 assigned and Homework 3 socket opened..

Project 3 --which is really a mini-project--(Bayes networks to save christmas in springfield) is assigned. It doesn't require any coding (!).

Homework 3 socket is opened and I added questions on Bayes Networks. It is also likely to be due around the same time as project 3.

Rao (trying out for the "most popular professor" award ;-)

### Re: Homework 3 solutions posted online

But that is not what I asked for :-(

I have now modifed the online solutions.

rao

**Kyle Luce**<kyle.luce@asu.edu> wrote:

Hi,

I am confused by HW3 solution 1, part 2.

I got:

A => B can be written as: ~A V B

~A => ~B can be written as: A V ~B

A

B

~A V B

A V ~B0

0

1

1

0

1

1

01

0

0

11

1

1

1

Am I wrong in my conversion of the implication ~A => ~B to A V ~B or is it obvious where I went wrong? Also, is it true that for soundness, every time A => B is true, that ~A => ~B should also be true? I just want to double check even my basic understanding.On 10/21/07,Subbarao Kambhampati< rao@asu.edu > wrote:Folks

Homework 3 solutions are now posted online.

With this, you have all the solutions for all the homeworks that can help you with Wedneday's exam

Rao

### Homework 3 solutions posted online

Homework 3 solutions are now posted online.

With this, you have all the solutions for all the homeworks that can help you with Wedneday's exam

Rao

## Saturday, October 20, 2007

### [cse 471] Instructions for submitting project-2

## Wednesday, October 17, 2007

### *Important*--required reading for Monday's class pp 504--515 in the text book

(when we will discuss inference in bayes networks)

rao

### links promised in today's class

1. The Martian life "paradox" (and how you can avoid the paradox by assessing only enough probabilities to avoid internal inconsistency)

see http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/gardner-indifference.pdf

2. Causality and graphical models -- a nice talk by Judea Pearl:

http://singapore.cs.ucla.edu/IJCAI99/index.html

(has the great example of "a suitcase with two locks")

3. Atul Gawande (a practising doctor who proves that good writing doesn't have to be associated with non-technical professions ;-) talks about the inevitable progress of medicine where machines become doctors and doctors become machines:

http://www.newyorker.com/archive/1998/03/30/1998_03_30_074_TNY_LIBRY_000015236

(only an abstract is available online. If you are interested, I can dig out a hard copy, or you can plunk for his book

http://www.amazon.com/Complications-Surgeons-Notes-Imperfect-Science/ in which this article appears as

"The Computer and the Hernia Factory" )

(I forgot what other references I promised to send you--if you recall, remind me)

Rao

### [cse 471] Homework-2 Announcements (grade distribution, marking scheme and a missing solution..)

Grad | avg:87.4 | 96(H) | 74(L) |

| | | |

UG | avg:84.8 | 96(H) | 72(L) |

## Monday, October 15, 2007

### [Thinking cap questions on bayes networks]

(to be concrete, you may think of the pearl alarm-earth quake scenario bayes net).

Your friend shows up and says he has the joint distribution all ready for you. You don't quite trust your

friend and think he is making these numbers up. Is there any way you can prove that your friends' joint

distribution is not correct?

2. Continuing bad friends, in the question above, suppose a second friend comes along and says that he can give you

the conditional probabilities that you want to complete the specification of your bayes net. You ask him a CPT entry,

and pat comes a response--some number between 0 and 1. This friend is well meaning, but you are worried that the

numbers he is giving may lead to some sort of inconsistent joint probability distribution. Is your worry justified ( i.e., can your

friend give you numbers that can lead to an inconsistency?)

(To understand "inconsistency", consider someone who insists on giving you P(A), P(B), P(A&B) as well as P(AVB) and they

wind up not satisfying the P(AVB)= P(A)+P(B) -P(A&B)

[or alternately, they insist on giving you P(A|B), P(B|A), P(A) and P(B), and the four numbers dont satisfy the bayes rule]

3. (mentioned in the class)

and says he has four random variables, X, Y, W and Z, and only TWO conditional independence assertions:

X .ind. Y | {W,Z}

W .ind. X | {X, Y}

He dares you to give him a bayes network topology on these four nodes that exactly represents these and only these conditional independencies.

Can you? (Note that you only need to look at 4 vertex directed graphs).

## Thursday, October 11, 2007

### Homework 3 socket closed; Due 10/17

socket. It is now due on 10/17 (next wednesday).

I will make the solutions to the homework available soon after that.

The midterm on 10/24 will involve all the material covered until 10/8.

Rao

### (Important) Proposed schedule for the semester+midterm on 10/24

I put up an approximate schedule for the rest of the semester (in the lecture notes page--below the lecture notes).

Assuming I got the dates right, we have 16 more classes (including the make-up class for 9/24 to be scheduled).

As for the mid-term: Here is my thinking.

I would like to include all the material discussed upto and including 10/8 (basically propositional logic) into the midterm.

I normally prefer to have you do homeworks on the topics that are being tested in the in-class midterm.

So, I am closing the homework 3 socket and making it due by next week (it is clearly a shorter homework than the other two).

This makes the optimal date for the midterm be 10/24

Since the homework deadline is sneaking up before the project 2 deadline, I am okay with accepting project 2 until 10/26

(Friday).

Speak up very soon if you see any major problems with this plan

Rao

### Readings from the text book updated..

My apologies for the confusion(s) caused by the fact that the "Readings" tab in the course page leads to readings from/for Fall 2006

edition, and we are doing things in a different order.

I have now edited the "Lecture notes" page so for each week, the chapters/sections form R&N that are "covered" that week are explicitly

listed. To avoid any future confusion, I removed the "readings" link from the web page.

I should make the following disclaimer

For the class test(s), you are only responsible for the material/topics that is actually covered in the class.

I did my best to make pointers to the text sections that correspond to what was covered. However, I will not

ask topics that were not discussed in the class, even if they were discussed in those sections in the text.

On the other hand, if I discussed something that is not explicitly present in the text, you are still responsible for it.

regards

Rao

## Wednesday, October 10, 2007

### [cse 471] Recitation Session for Project-2 (tomorrow 3-4 PM)

## Monday, October 8, 2007

### A specimen midterm exam

http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cse471/specimen-midterm.pdf

rao

### [Thinking Cap] for probabilistic propositional logic+Important reading assignment for next class

0. If I have n propositions, how many possible clauses are there? (Assume that clauses of the form A V A are automatically simplified to A).

Does this help in convincing you that the resolution theoremproving search procedure is *complete* in that it will terminate whether or not

the theorem you are trying to prove actually holds?

1. We saw that propositional logic is monotonic and that real world requried "defeasible" or "non-monotonic" reasoning. Is probabilistic reasoning

monotonic or non-monotonic? Explain.

2. You obviously heard the two words "Probability" and "statistics". What is the difference between them? (or are they basically synonyms?)

3. We made a big point about the need for representing joint distribution compactly. Much of elementary probability/statistics handles

continuous and multi-valued variables, where specifying the distribution of the single variable itself will need a huge number of numbers.

How is this normally side-stepped in elementary probability?

[Reading assignment] Make sure to read/review chapter 13 which reviews elementary probability.

Rao

### [cse 471] Proj-1 statistics, grading scheme and comments

**Grade distribution:**

Grad: 93.4 | (Avg) | 100 (H) | 74 (L) |

| | | |

UG: 90.5 | (Avg) | 99 (H) | 74 (L) |

**Grading Scheme:**

**Comments::**

**exceptions**in the given methods/trends, and

**suggestions for improving the solutions etc**.

## Wednesday, October 3, 2007

### Project 2 assigned; description of what you need to do is online now. Due Oct 22nd.

on the project to get it out of your way.

Rao

### *Real slides* for today's class now available online..

Since today's class went into a long and unplanned (but nevertheless very important) detour,

I added slides that actually correspond to the discussion that was done in the class

I strongly encourage you to look at those slides. Among other things, the slides give you clear

comparisons between k-consisteny and forward checking, as well as a full example of enforcing arc-consistency.

rao

## Monday, October 1, 2007

### Results of class survey

---------------------

# Sheet1

A | B | C | D | E | F | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | CSE 471/598 Fall 2007 | UG | UG % | Grad | G % | Total % |

2 | Class Survey | |||||

3 | Please Circle the appropriate choice for each questions | |||||

4 | ||||||

5 | ABOUT YOU | |||||

6 | Qn0 I am taking the course as | |||||

7 | CSE471 | 9 | 31.03 % | 31.03 % | ||

8 | CSE598 | 20 | 68.97 % | 68.97 % | ||

9 | ||||||

10 | QN1 The pace of the class/lectures is | |||||

11 | somewhat slow | 1 | 11.11 % | 3 | 15.00 % | 13.79 % |

12 | too slow | 0 | 0.00 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 0.00 % |

13 | somewhat fast | 3 | 33.33 % | 6 | 30.00 % | 31.03 % |

14 | too fast | 1 | 11.11 % | 1 | 5.00 % | 6.90 % |

15 | just right | 4 | 44.44 % | 9 | 45.00 % | 44.83 % |

16 | ||||||

17 | QN2 The lecture(s) that you liked most until now (you can circle multiple) | |||||

18 | The intro lectures | 4 | 16.00 % | 3 | 7.69 % | 10.94 % |

19 | The Agent Lectures | 2 | 8.00 % | 4 | 10.26 % | 9.38 % |

20 | The Blind search lectures | 4 | 16.00 % | 6 | 15.38 % | 15.63 % |

21 | The informed search (A*) lectures | 8 | 32.00 % | 17 | 43.59 % | 39.06 % |

22 | The CSP Lectures | 7 | 28.00 % | 9 | 23.08 % | 25.00 % |

23 | Pattern Databases | 0 | 0.00 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 0.00 % |

24 | They are all bad | 0 | 0.00 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 0.00 % |

25 | ||||||

26 | QN3 The lecture(s) that you liked *least* until now (you can circle multiple) | |||||

27 | The intro lectures | 0 | 0.00 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 0.00 % |

28 | The Agent Lectures | 3 | 30.00 % | 6 | 33.33 % | 32.14 % |

29 | The Blind search lectures | 1 | 10.00 % | 1 | 5.56 % | 7.14 % |

30 | The informed search (A*) lectures | 1 | 10.00 % | 1 | 5.56 % | 7.14 % |

31 | The CSP Lectures | 2 | 20.00 % | 5 | 27.78 % | 25.00 % |

32 | Pattern Databases | 1 | 10.00 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 3.57 % |

33 | They are all great | 2 | 20.00 % | 5 | 27.78 % | 25.00 % |

34 | ||||||

35 | QN4 Which type of lectures did you follow better | |||||

36 | The lectures done with slides | 2 | 22.22 % | 2 | 10.00 % | 13.79 % |

37 | The lectures done with white-board | 1 | 11.11 % | 4 | 20.00 % | 17.24 % |

38 | Those with a mix | 6 | 66.67 % | 13 | 65.00 % | 65.52 % |

39 | ||||||

40 | QN5 The lecture style | |||||

41 | Keeps you engaged | 2 | 22.22 % | 9 | 45.00 % | 37.93 % |

42 | overwhelms you | 1 | 11.11 % | 3 | 15.00 % | 13.79 % |

43 | reasonable | 6 | 66.67 % | 8 | 40.00 % | 48.28 % |

44 | Conducive to a pre-prandial snooze | 0 | 0.00 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 0.00 % |

45 | ||||||

46 | QN6 The class is | |||||

47 | Too much "Teacher Talking" | 4 | 44.44 % | 2 | 10.00 % | 20.69 % |

48 | Sufficiently interactive | 5 | 55.56 % | 17 | 85.00 % | 75.86 % |

49 | Too interactive | 0 | 0.00 % | 1 | 5.00 % | 3.45 % |

50 | ||||||

51 | QN7 The material (as of now) is | |||||

52 | Exciting | 1 | 11.11 % | 10 | 50.00 % | 37.93 % |

53 | Boring | 0 | 0.00 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 0.00 % |

54 | okay | 8 | 88.89 % | 10 | 50.00 % | 62.07 % |

55 | ||||||

56 | QN8 The presentation level | |||||

57 | Goes right over my head | 1 | 11.11 % | 4 | 20.00 % | 17.24 % |

58 | Spoonfeeds me by repeating every little thing | 1 | 11.11 % | 1 | 5.00 % | 6.90 % |

59 | Just right for me | 7 | 77.78 % | 15 | 75.00 % | 75.86 % |

60 | ||||||

61 | QN9 Most of the the extra discussion on the blog is, for the most part, | |||||

62 | lapped-up by me | 2 | 22.22 % | 9 | 45.00 % | 37.93 % |

63 | ignored by me | 6 | 66.67 % | 8 | 40.00 % | 48.28 % |

64 | What extra stuff? | 1 | 11.11 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 3.45 % |

65 | ||||||

66 | QN10 I am able to get help when needed from the Instructor | |||||

67 | Strongly agree | 0 | 0.00 % | 9 | 45.00 % | 31.03 % |

68 | Okay | 7 | 77.78 % | 11 | 55.00 % | 62.07 % |

69 | Not really.. | 1 | 11.11 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 3.45 % |

70 | ||||||

71 | QN11 I am able to get help when needed from the TA | |||||

72 | Strongly agree | 1 | 11.11 % | 11 | 55.00 % | 41.38 % |

73 | Okay | 5 | 55.56 % | 9 | 45.00 % | 48.28 % |

74 | Not really.. | 2 | 22.22 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 6.90 % |

75 | ||||||

76 | ||||||

77 | QN12 The expectations/demands of the course/instructor are | |||||

78 | Unreasonably high | 2 | 22.22 % | 2 | 10.00 % | 13.79 % |

79 | Unreasonably low | 0 | 0.00 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 0.00 % |

80 | Challenging but reasonable | 7 | 77.78 % | 18 | 90.00 % | 86.21 % |

81 | ||||||

82 | QN13 The lecture material is | |||||

83 | Too depth oriented | 2 | 22.22 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 6.90 % |

84 | Too breadth oriented | 3 | 33.33 % | 5 | 25.00 % | 27.59 % |

85 | Just right | 3 | 33.33 % | 15 | 75.00 % | 62.07 % |

86 | ||||||

87 | QN14 The lectures are | |||||

88 | Too much intuition and too little formal detail | 1 | 11.11 % | 3 | 15.00 % | 13.79 % |

89 | Too much formal detail, too little intuition | 3 | 33.33 % | 2 | 10.00 % | 17.24 % |

90 | Balanced between intuition and detail | 4 | 44.44 % | 11 | 55.00 % | 51.72 % |

91 | ||||||

92 | Qn 15. The lectures | |||||

93 | Complement the textbook | 6 | 66.67 % | 15 | 75.00 % | 72.41 % |

94 | Repeat the textbook | 2 | 22.22 % | 0 | 0.00 % | 6.90 % |

95 | Are mostly disjoint from the textbook | 0 | 0.00 % | 1 | 5.00 % | 3.45 % |

96 | ||||||

97 | QN16 In your opinion there should be | |||||

98 | More frequent homeworks | 0 | 0.00 % | 2 | 10.00 % | 6.90 % |

99 | Less frequent homeworks | 2 | 22.22 % | 8 | 40.00 % | 34.48 % |

100 | Current schedule is fine | 6 | 66.67 % | 7 | 35.00 % | 44.83 % |

101 | ||||||

102 | QN17 In your opinion there should be (multiple answers okay) | |||||

103 | There should be more frequent projects | 4 | 33.33 % | 1 | 5.00 % | 17.24 % |

104 | There should be less frequent projects | 2 | 16.67 % | 12 | 60.00 % | 48.28 % |

105 | The projects should be more challenging | 0 | 0.00 % | 4 | 20.00 % | 13.79 % |

106 | The projects should be way less challenging | 6 | 50.00 % | 1 | 5.00 % | 24.14 % |

107 | ||||||

108 | ||||||

109 | QN18 Your stress/anxiety level about this course relative to your other courses | |||||

110 | Very high | 4 | 44.44 % | 7 | 35.00 % | 37.93 % |

111 | Very low | 0 | 0.00 % | 2 | 10.00 % | 6.90 % |

112 | About the same | 4 | 44.44 % | 8 | 40.00 % | 41.38 % |

113 | ||||||

114 | QN 19 (only if you have taken an Intro to AI course before somewhere) | |||||

115 | I think this course is | |||||

116 | Pretty much similar to what I have done | 0 | 0.00 % | 2 | 10.00 % | 6.90 % |

117 | Much deeper than what I have done | 0 | 0.00 % | 5 | 25.00 % | 17.24 % |

118 | Much more of a cake-walk than what I have done | 1 | 11.11 % | 1 | 5.00 % | 6.90 % |

119 | ||||||

120 | QN 20: (Only if you are taking it as 471 -- i.e., UG Credit) | |||||

121 | Tick any that apply | |||||

122 | I think this course is geared too much towards graduate students | 2 | 22.22 % | 6.90 % | ||

123 | The demands of this course are grossly unreasonable for a 4-level course | 1 | 11.11 % | 3.45 % | ||

124 | Fine as it is, more or less. | 6 | 66.67 % | 20.69 % | ||

125 | ||||||

126 | QN 21 Will it help to have recitation sessions to discuss homework problems? | |||||

127 | Yes - I will attend | 2 | 22.22 % | 10 | 50.00 % | 41.38 % |

128 | Yes - I might attend | 4 | 44.44 % | 4 | 20.00 % | 27.59 % |

129 | Not really | 2 | 22.22 % | 3 | 15.00 % | 17.24 % |

130 | ||||||

131 | QN 22 If you are a 471 student รข€¦ | |||||

132 | I would like to get more help from the UG grader / tutor Kartik | 3 | 33.33 % | 10.34 % | ||

133 | I want Kartik to leave me alone | 0 | 0.00 % | 0.00 % | ||

134 | I am already getting enough help | 4 | 44.44 % | 13.79 % | ||

135 | ||||||

136 | ||||||

137 | If you have additional comment/feedback, either write below or send a mail | |||||

138 | using http://rakaposhi.eas.asu.edu/cgi-bin/mail?rao |